Mar 011988
 

The Karabagh File. Documents and Facts, 1918-1988

First Edition, Cambridge Toronto 1988
By the ZORYAN INSTITUTE
Edited by: Gerard J. LIBARIDIAN

In late February 1988, the world was shocked by a week-long series of demonstrations in Yerevan, capital of the Armenian S.S.R., one of the fifteen republics of the Soviet Union. Although peaceful, the place, size, length, and apparent suddenness of the demonstrations brought to world consciousness names of people and places as intractable as the issues they embody. The sights and sounds of hundreds of thousands of demonstrators seeking to influence policy makers in the central government of the U.S.S.R. and bring about changes in internal boundaries highlighted the promise and challenge of glasnost and perestroika. The question of Mountainous Karabagh also raised the thorny issue of Soviet nationalities policy.

The day to day interpretations accompanying the drama that unfolded could not have been expected to reveal the roots and dimensions of the question of Mountainous Karabagh, a 4,500 sq km Armenian-populated-area which Armenians are hoping will be reattached to their land. There is a gap between the fascination with the question and available information.

This is a unique volume which attempts to bridge that gap. Through the extensive use of original documents, maps, statistical data, a chronology, and photographs covering the last eighty years, the Zoryan Institute and its staff provide the reader not only the necessary information but also the context within which it is possible to analyze the problems.

File: The Karabagh File
Source: Zoryan Institute


Content

PREFACE

INTRODUCTION

HISTORY AND POLITICS

I. TO 1917

II. REVOLUTION, REPUBLIC, AND CIVIL WAR

DOCUMENTS

  1. Report on Thrkish General Khalil Pasha’s Visit to Yerevan. 8
    September 20, 1918
  2. Confidential report to Yerevan on Azerbaijan’s occupation of Shushi.
    September 28, 1918
  3. Communique issued by Colonel D. I. Shullleworth on temporary Azerbaijani control of Karabagh.
    January 15, 1919
  4. Protest note of the Armenian government to Azerbaijan on Karabagh.
    January 26, 1919
  5. Protest note of Karabagh Armenians to Allied Governments.
    February 20, 1919
  6. Proposal by Armenian National Council for provisional administration of Karabagh.
    February 20, 1919
  7. Memorandum of the Fourth Assembly of Karabagh Armenians to Commander of Allied Forces in Transcaucasia.
    February 24, 1919
  8. Telegram sent by Colonel Chardigny on the situation of Armenians in Transcaucasia.
    March 20, 1919
  9. Proposal by the Fifth Assembly of Karabagh Armenians for a provisional government.
    April 25, 1919
  10. Letter by the Fifth Assembly of Karabagh Armenians to General Shuttleworth.
    April 25, 1919
  11. Letter by Avetis Aharonian to Peace Conference delegates on Karabagh.
    May 15, 1919
  12. Resolution passed by demonstrators in Yerevan protesting massacres in Karabagh.
    June 11 , 1919
  13. Agreement of Karabagh Armenians with Governor-General Sultanov on provisional Azerbaijani rule.
    August 15, 1919
  14. Discussion by Prime Ministers of Azerbaijan and Armenia, on the conflict between the two countries.
    November 20, 1919
  15. Karabagh memorandum on political situation to Allied Powers.
    March 4, 1920
  16. Confidential report to Armenia’s Minister of Foreign Affairs on atrocities in Karabagh.
    April16, 1920
  17. Resolution by Yerevan demonstrators demanding Soviet government to defend the rights of Armenians in Karabagh.
    May 1, 1920
  18. Secret report on discussion between T. Begzatian and Legran.
    August 5, 1920

    III. SOVIETIZATION
     DOCUMENTS
  19. Azerbaijani telegram on ceding Armenian territories to Armenian Republic.
    December 1, 1920
  20. Simon Vratzian on Azerbaijani statement on ceding of Armenian territories.
    December 1, 1920
  21. Announcements of Armenian-Azerbaijani agreement on disputed territories.
    June 12, 1921
  22. Headline of official declaration of agreement to attach Karabagh to Armenia.
    June 19, 1921
  23. Change in Soviet policy regarding the status of Karabagh.
    July 3,1921
  24. Azerbaijani announcement on annexation of Karabagh.
    July 1923

    IV. FROM STALINISM TO THE BREZHNEV ERA
     DOCUMENTS
  25. Eyewitness account of 1920’s in Karabagh.
    February 15, 1928
  26. Eyewitness account of events in Mountainous Karabagh.
    1924-1936
  27. Petition of Karabagh Armenians to Nikita Khrushchev on re-incorporation of Mountainous Karabagh in the Armenian S.S.R.
    May 19, 1964
  28. Karabagh Armenians’ appeal to Soviet Armenia on local conditions.
    September 19, 1967
  29. Letter by Sero Khanzadian to Leonid E. Brezhnev.
    October 15, 1977
  30. Article on Armenian grievances in Mountainous Karabagh, the New York Times.
    December 11, 1977
  31. Excerpts from text of Constitution of U.S.S.R.
    October 7, 1977

    V. THE ERA OF PERESTROIKA
    DOCUMENTS
    V.i THE NEED FOR RADICAL CHANGE
  32. Editorial on the nationalities issue in the U.S.S.R. Pravda.
    December 23, 1986
  33. Discussion on Soviet nationalities policy. Moscow Radio.
    January 2, 1987
  34. Yu. Bromley on the “National Processes in the USSR: Achievements and Problems,” Pravda.
    February 13, 1987
  35. Statement of Yegor Ligachev on the issue of nationalities, Armenian Reporter.
    September 17, 1987
  36. Gorbachev’s call for a special Central Committee meeting on nationalities policy, the New York Times.
    February 19, 1988
  37. Statement of Abel Aganbekian on the scope of reforms, the New York Times.
    February 28, 1988

    V.ii RADICAL CHANGE AND THE QUESTION OF MOUNTAINOUS KARABAGH
  38. Interview by Zori Balayan with Abel Aganbekian, Pravda.
    February 25, 1987
  39. Zori Balayan on Armenian writers in the diaspora and in Soviet Armenia, Vozni.
    September 1987
  40. Sergei Mikoyan on Karabagh and Soviet Armenia, the Armenian M irror-Spectator.
    October 24, 1987
  41. Press conference by Catholicos Vazgen I in Los Angeles, Asbarez.
    November 4, 1987
  42. Abel Aganbekian on Karabagh,
    December 5, 1987
  43. Zori Balayan on patriotism and Karabagh, Hye Gyank.
    December 25, 1987
  44. Zori Balayan and Sergei Mikoyan on contemporary Armenian concerns, the Armenian Mirror-Spectator.
    February 6, 1988
  45. Zori Balayan on glasnost and emigration, the Armenian Mirror-Spectator.
    February 20, 1988

    V.iii SEEKING REDRESS OF GRIEVANCES: IN A NEW ERA
  46. Memorandum by Suren Ayvazian to General Secretary Gorbachev on Karabagh and Nakhichevan, Haratch.
    December 13-14, 1987
  47. The case of two Armenians in Azerbaijan accused of embezzlement, Izvestia.
    August S, 1987
  48. Armenians petition Gorbachev on Karabagh and Nakhichevan. Droshak.
    October 13-14, 1987
  49. Reports of demonstrations in Yerevan and clashes in Mountainous Karabagh, Asbarez.
    October 24, 1987
  50. Report of a Karabagh delegation meeting with Soviet official in Moscow, Asbarez.
    February 6, 1988
  51. Resolution by the government of Autonomous Region of Mountainous Karabagh requesting incorporation in Soviet Armenia, Sovetakan Gharabagh.
    February 21, 1988
  52. Press account of new wave of demonstrations in Karabagh and Yerevan, the Los Anaeles Times.
    February 23, 1988
  53. a. Segment of speech delivered at Yerevan demonstrations.
    February 24-26, 1988
    b. Segments of speech delivered at Yerevan demonstrations.
    February 26, 1988
    c. Banners and slogans used at Yerevan demonstrations.
    February 26, 1988
  54. News accounts of Yerevan demonstrations, the Los Angeles Times.
    February 26, 1988
  55. Press accounts of meeting between Gorbachev and Armenian representatives, Washinaton Post.
    February 28, 1988

    V.iv RESPONSES WITHIN THE U.S.S.R.
  56. Statement of Karen Demiijian on Yerevan television, Haratch.
    February 25,1988
  57. Response of the Central Committee to the demand by the government of Mountainous Karabagh, Tass.
    February 23, 1988
  58. Comments of Ayaz Mutalibov on Mountainous Karabagh, Tass.
    February 23, 1988
  59. Decision of the Communist Party of Armenia on Karabagh, The Am1enjan Mirror-Spectator.
    March 12, 1988
  60. Official reaction of “party activists” of Mountainous Karabagh after meeting with Moscow envoy, Moscow World Service.
    February 24, 1988
  61. Letter of Catholicos Vazgen I to Gorbachev, Hairenik daily.
    March 5, 1988
  62. Excerpts from a message by Gorbachev to Soviet republics of Armenia and Azerbaijan, BBC radio, the Armenian Mirror Spectator.
    March 5, 1988
  63. Account of Kurdish support of Armenian claims in Mountainous Karabagh, Gamk.
    March 1, 1988
  64. Press account of anti-Armenian rioting in Azerbaijan, the New York Times.
    March 3,1988 V.v. THE ARMENIAN RESPONSE IN THE DIASPORA
  65. Letter from Armenian Democratic Liberal Organization to Gorbachev, regarding Karabagh and Nakhichevan, the Armenian Mirror-Spectator.
    December 12, 1987
  66. Memorandum from the Social Democratic Hnchakian Party to Gorbachev in support of Armenian claims on Karabagh. Masis.
    December 5, 1987
  67. Letter by Armenian Revolutionary Federation, and statement by Armenian National Committee expressing full support of Armenian demonstrations and claims, Asbarez.
    December 5, 1987
  68. Communique by the Representative Committee of the Armenian community in France, Haratch.
    February 26, 1988
  69. Resolution presented to the U.S.S.R. ambassador to France by French Armenians, Gamk.
    February 28-29, 1988
  70. Telegram sent to Gorbachev by Alex Manoogian, the Armenian Mirror-Spectator.
    March 3, 1988
  71. Statement by Ross Vartian, executive director of the Armenian Assembly of America, the Armenian Mirror-Spectator.
    March 5, 1988
  72. a. Armenian support organized through demonstrations in many North American cities, the New York Times.
    February 27, 1988b. Demonstrations in Paris, New York, Washington D.C., Montreal, Cambridge, Los Angeles and San Franciso.
    February 25-28, 1988c. Demonstrations in Los Angeles.
    February 28, 1988d. D.emonstrations in Los Angeles.

    March 12, 1988

  73. Telegram by Catholicos Karekin II to Gorbachev, Asbarez.
    March 5, 1988
  74. Declaration of the Bureau of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation concerning the killings of Armenians in Azerbaijan.
    March 10, 1988

APPENDICES

A. PHOTOGRAPHS

B. STATISTICS

C. MAPS

D. CHRONOLOGY

E. ON HISTORY AND CURRENT EVENTS: VIEWS AND INTERVIEWS

  1. On British Policy in the Cacausus, Artin Arslanian
  2. USSR: History and Policy in Conflict, R. G. Hovannisian
  3. A Soviet Paradox, Ronald Suny
  4. Glasnost and Nationalities Policy, Ronald Suny
  5. Claims and Expectations, Gerard Libaridian
  6. Need for Radical Reform, Gerard Libaridian

F. BIBLIOGRAPHY